The millet grain is covered with white, yellow, green, red, brown, gray or black glue that is unattended with it. In varieties with white kernels the proportion of chaff is lower (about 16%) than in the colored ones (over 25%). The weight of 1000 grains of varieties grown in Poland varies between 5-7 g. The bundle root system of millet is usually distributed in the soil layer at a depth of 40-50 cm, but single roots can reach 1 m. It has a greater utilization capacity than other cereals. water on dry soils. The blade is 0.75-1.5 m long and spreads from 1 to 5 shoots depending on the varietal and habitat properties.
Millet is self-pollinating, but it is often pollinated by insects, and high temperatures and good sunlight increase the fertility of the flowers.
Millet straw and chaff are of equal quality to medium-quality hay and have a higher forage value than straw from other cereals. Some species of millet can also be grown for green in Poland.
Successfully, as in other countries, millet can be used to produce spirit, beer, starch and grape sugar.
The vegetation period of millet lasts 80-115 days and is largely dependent on the variety, climatic and soil conditions, and fertilization.
Good seed material is a prerequisite for high yields.
The optimal sowing date is between 15 and 20 May. Too early sowing may expose plants to spring frosts, too late, but may delay their maturation and reduce yields.
The sowing rate ranges from 25-30 kg / ha and depends on the date of sowing, soil and fertilization.
Small millet seeds should be sown shallow and to the same depth: 1-2 cm on heavier soils and 3-4 cm on lighter soils. The distance between the rows should be 15-25 cm.
Under favorable conditions, the millet will emerge 6-7 days after sowing. In the event of delay in emergence (low temperatures, soil crust), a harrow or a spike roller should be used. After the appearance of the first leaf, the growth of millet is inhibited, which favors the development of weeds. In order to destroy weeds and prevent possible soil crusting, harrow the field surface with a medium harrow.
However, after emergence, it would be advisable to use multi-row hoes for maintenance. This treatment can be performed until the inter-rows are covered. The number of treatments performed depends on the degree of weed infestation in the plantation. Usually, two treatments are enough: in the tillering phase and in shooting at the stalk.
Millet is more sensitive to herbicides than other grain crops. In its cultivation, only the control of dicotyledonous weeds is possible. In the event of heavy weed infestation, the herbicide can be used when the millet plants reach 10-15 cm in height. Earlier or later application of herbicides causes damage and delays plant development.
The risk of infestation of millet with diseases is not high. Under conditions that extend the germination period, especially cold, and heavy and wet soils, they are conducive to infestation by the millet. However, seed dressing counteracts this effectively.
The most dangerous pest is the European corn borer, especially its larval form. Zwalczaie is based on deep stubble cultivation and winter plowing, sowing in the third decade of May and destroying thick-stemmed weeds.